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Frankreich c

frankreich c

Rocamadour (C) Atout France Beynac (C) Atout France Carcassonne (C) Paul Wallfahrtsort Vézelay ist ein Glanzpunkt romanischer Kunst in Frankreich. Das Maßsystem in Frankreich ist das metrische System und Temperaturen werden in 0°C, 32°F. 5°C, 41°F. 10°C, 50°F. 15°C, 59°F. 20°C, 68°F. 25°C, 77° F. Über Sehenswürdigkeiten in Frankreich informiert diese Seite ausführlich. Oft stehen in Frankreich. A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z.

c frankreich - thanks

Es lassen sich, wenn man alle meteorologischen Erscheinungen in Betracht zieht, sieben klimatische Regionen in Frankreich unterscheiden:. Dank der weltweiten Nachfrage nach Bordeauxweinen und der langen Lebenserwartung dieser Weine erfreuen sich diese Weine einer Besonderheit. Unweit südwestlich liegt das Kloster von Moissac mit seinem eindrucksvollen romanischen Kreuzgang aus dem späten Generell kann in Frankreich die erste Fremdsprache gewählt werden. Heute müssten die jungen Leute ein Studium der Önologie absolvieren, um als Kellermeister arbeiten zu können. Auf Grund einer geringeren Preissensibilität der französischen Kunden verlangen die Händler im Durchschnitt höhere Preise. Nach Westen auf den Atlantik zu werden die Niederschlagsmengen zu hoch, um Weinbau zu ermöglichen. So hat sich eine genaue Kenntnis von der Harmonie zwischen dem Wein und der Speise entwickelt. Wer nicht schnell genug bezahlt, sich falsch einordnet oder zu langsam fährt, wird schnell angehupt. Am Morgen ist es stark bewölkt mit leichtem Regen. In der Nacht zum Dienstag überwiegt wechselnd bewölktes Wetter. Auch das Lot-Tal erfreut uns mit vielen Höhepunkten: Am Montag ist es trüb und regnerisch. Marseille 3h 30' und Montpellier 3h 50' und attraktive Verbindungen nach Lyon ca. Am Abend gibt es leicht bewölktes Wetter. Wetter in Poitiers, Die wunderbare Welt der führenden Online mobile casino kenya lässt sich nicht allein in nüchternen Zahlen ausdrücken, doch sie geben umsonst wetten wichtigen Einblick. Das Wiederholungszeichen "Rappel" erinnert an weiterbestehende Geschwindigkeitslimiten. Aber als Calvados oder als Cidre werden sie zu einer echten Spezialität.

Frankreich C Video

Kategorie C - Frankreich 98

Frankreich c - for that

In der Nacht wird es bedeckt, aber weitgehend trocken. Die Plätze sind in Kategorien eingeteilt einer bis fünf Sterne. Wetter in Poitiers, Die Tiefstwerte in der kommenden Nacht liegen bei rund 4 Grad. Auf diese, später im Vertrag von Ribemont abgeschlossene, Teilung gehen die Streitigkeiten um Elsass und Lothringen zwischen Frankreich und Deutschland zurück. Die eigentlich warmen Gegenden sind an der Südseite der Gebirge am Mittelmeer , wo die Sommer italienisch sind. Charles de Gaulle -- The top national football club competition is Ligue 1. Retrieved 18 August Even if the French have the reputation of being one of the thinnest people in developed countries, [] [] [] [] [] [] France—like other rich countries—faces an increasing and recent epidemic of obesity the home, due mostly to the replacement in French eating habits of traditional healthy French cuisine by junk food. The choice of gauge during initial construction was mainly in resp. Retrieved 29 January This entry includes four subfields app google store the smiley entspannt transport system of a given country in terms of both structure and performance. This entry gives the value of shares issued by publicly traded companies at a price determined in the national stock markets viertelfinale handball the final day of the period indicated. Following the renovation of the Parc des Princes inwhich gave the stadium the largest capacity in Paris, France moved into the venue permanently. It resulted in somedeaths huuuge casino hacks 2019 viertelfinale handball, internally displaced Algerians. This entry gives the average annual number of deaths during a year per 1, population at midyear; also known as crude death rate. The first, urban population, describes the percentage of the total population living in urban areas, as deutscher meister tabelle by the country. A generally patriotic musical composition - usually in the form of a song or hymn of praise - that evokes and eulogizes the history, kanada gp, or struggles of a nation or its people. Microsoft Encarta Online Encyclopedia Starting with the Factbook, demographic estimates for some countries mostly African have explicitly taken into account t. Die Tiefstwerte in der kommenden Nacht liegen bei rund 5 Grad. Die Mittagszeit wird stark bewölkt, es fällt zeitweise Schneeregen. Sehr einfache private Plätze haben manchmal nur einen Stern selten. Frankreich hat viele Gesichter: Der Flughafen kann mit einem Bus ab dem Flughafen Wien erreicht werden und bei Buchung des Fluges gleich mitbestellt werden. Wetter in Poitiers, Die Republik Frankreich umfasst auch fünf Überseeregionen , die Erbe des einstigen französischen Kolonialreichs sind. Sie trinken natürlich französischen Wein, so wie sie auch in Frankreich Urlaub machen. Wetter in Paris, Wetter in Lille, Die Plätze sind in Kategorien eingeteilt einer bis fünf Sterne. Der Apfel ist ein wichtiger Rohstoff und bildet für viele Landwirte die Lebensgrundlage, denn sie erzeugen daraus wahre Köstlichkeiten. Bei den gelegentlichen Streiks muss mit Behinderungen und Verspätungen im Reiseverkehr gerechnet werden.

Political parties and leaders: This entry lists in alphabetical order by abbreviation those international organizations in which the subject country is a member or participates in some other way.

Diplomatic representation in the US: This entry includes the chief of mission, chancery address, telephone, FAX, consulate general locations, and consulate locations.

Such ambassadors fulfill all diplomatic functions except meeting with or appearing at functions attended by the president until such time as they formally present their credentials at a White Hou.

Diplomatic representation from the US: This entry includes the chief of mission, embassy address, mailing address, telephone number, FAX number, branch office locations, consulate general locations, and consulate locations.

Bordeaux, Lyon, Rennes, Toulouse. This entry provides a written flag description produced from actual flags or the best information available at the time the entry was written.

The flags of independent states are used by their dependencies unless there is an officially recognized local flag.

Some disputed and other areas do not have flags. A national symbol is a faunal, floral, or other abstract representation - or some distinctive object - that over time has come to be closely identified with a country or entity.

Not all countries have national symbols; a few countries have more than one. Gallic rooster, fleur-de-lis, Marianne female personification ; national colors: A generally patriotic musical composition - usually in the form of a song or hymn of praise - that evokes and eulogizes the history, traditions, or struggles of a nation or its people.

Although most anthems contain lyrics, some do not. This entry briefly describes the type of economy, including the degree of market orientation, the level of economic development, the most important natural resources, and the unique areas of specialization.

It also characterizes major economic events and policy changes in the most recent 12 months and may include a statement about one or two key future macroeconomic trends.

GDP purchasing power parity: This entry gives the gross domestic product GDP or value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year.

This is the measure most economists prefer when looking at per-capita welfare and when comparing living conditions or use of resources across countries.

GDP official exchange rate: The measure is simple to compute and gives a precise measure of the value of output.

Many economists prefer this measure when gauging the economic power an economy maintains vis-. GDP - real growth rate: This entry gives GDP growth on an annual basis adjusted for inflation and expressed as a percent.

The growth rates are year-over-year, and not compounded. This entry shows GDP on a purchasing power parity basis divided by population as of 1 July for the same year.

Gross national saving is derived by deducting final consumption expenditure household plus government from Gross national disposable income, and consists of personal saving, plus business saving the sum of the capital consumption allowance and retained business profits , plus government saving the excess of tax revenues over expenditures , but excludes foreign saving the excess of imports of goods and services over exports.

The figures are presented as a percent of GDP. GDP - composition, by end use: This entry shows who does the spending in an economy: The distribution gives the percentage contribution to total GDP of household consumption, government consumption, investment in fixed capital, investment in inventories, exports of goods and services, and imports of goods and services, and will total percent of GDP if the data are complete.

GDP - composition, by sector of origin: This entry shows where production takes place in an economy. The distribution gives the percentage contribution of agriculture, industry, and services to total GDP, and will total percent of GDP if the data are complete.

Agriculture includes farming, fishing, and forestry. Industry includes mining, manufacturing, energy production, and construction. Services cover government activities, communications, transportation, finance, and all other private economic activities that do not prod.

This entry is an ordered listing of major crops and products starting with the most important. This entry provides a rank ordering of industries starting with the largest by value of annual output.

Industrial production growth rate: This entry gives the annual percentage increase in industrial production includes manufacturing, mining, and construction.

This entry contains the total labor force figure. Labor force - by occupation: This entry lists the percentage distribution of the labor force by sector of occupation.

Services cover government activities, communications, transportation, finance, and all other economic activities that do not produce material goods.

The distribution will total less than percent if the data are incomplete and may range from percent due to rounding.

This entry contains the percent of the labor force that is without jobs. Substantial underemployment might be noted.

Population below poverty line: National estimates of the percentage of the population falling below the poverty line are based on surveys of sub-groups, with the results weighted by the number of people in each group.

Definitions of poverty vary considerably among nations. For example, rich nations generally employ more generous standards of poverty than poor nations.

Household income or consumption by percentage share: Data on household income or consumption come from household surveys, the results adjusted for household size.

Nations use different standards and procedures in collecting and adjusting the data. Surveys based on income will normally show a more unequal distribution than surveys based on consumption.

The quality of surveys is improving with time, yet caution is still necessary in making inter-country comparisons.

Distribution of family income - Gini index: This index measures the degree of inequality in the distribution of family income in a country.

The index is calculated from the Lorenz curve, in which cumulative family income is plotted against the number of families arranged from the poorest to the richest.

This entry includes revenues, expenditures, and capital expenditures. These figures are calculated on an exchange rate basis, i.

Taxes and other revenues: This entry records total taxes and other revenues received by the national government during the time period indicated, expressed as a percent of GDP.

Taxes include personal and corporate income taxes, value added taxes, excise taxes, and tariffs. Other revenues include social contributions - such as payments for social security and hospital insurance - grants, and net revenues from public enterprises.

Normalizing the data, by dividing total revenues by GDP, enables easy comparisons acr. This entry records the difference between national government revenues and expenditures, expressed as a percent of GDP.

Normalizing the data, by dividing the budget balance by GDP, enables easy comparisons across countries and indicates whether a national government saves or borrows money.

Countries with high budget deficits relat. Public debt should not be confused with external debt, which reflects the foreign currency liabilities of both the private and public sector and must be financed out of foreign exchange earnings.

All yearly references are for the calendar year CY unless indicated as a noncalendar fiscal year FY. Inflation rate consumer prices: Central bank discount rate: Commercial bank prime lending rate: This entry provides a simple average of annualized interest rates commercial banks charge on new loans, denominated in the national currency, to their most credit-worthy customers.

Stock of narrow money: This entry, also known as "M1," comprises the total quantity of currency in circulation notes and coins plus demand deposits denominated in the national currency held by nonbank financial institutions, state and local governments, nonfinancial public enterprises, and the private sector of the economy, measured at a specific point in time.

National currency units have been converted to US dollars at the closing exchange rate for the date of the information. Because of exchange rate moveme.

Stock of broad money: This entry covers all of "Narrow money," plus the total quantity of time and savings deposits, credit union deposits, institutional money market funds, short-term repurchase agreements between the central bank and commercial deposit banks, and other large liquid assets held by nonbank financial institutions, state and local governments, nonfinancial public enterprises, and the private sector of the economy.

National currency units have been converted to US dollars at the closing exchange r. Stock of domestic credit: This entry is the total quantity of credit, denominated in the domestic currency, provided by financial institutions to the central bank, state and local governments, public non-financial corporations, and the private sector.

The national currency units have been converted to US dollars at the closing exchange rate on the date of the information.

Market value of publicly traded shares: This entry gives the value of shares issued by publicly traded companies at a price determined in the national stock markets on the final day of the period indicated.

It is simply the latest price per share multiplied by the total number of outstanding shares, cumulated over all companies listed on the particular exchange.

This entry provides the total US dollar amount of merchandise exports on an f. This entry provides a rank ordering of trading partners starting with the most important; it sometimes includes the percent of total dollar value.

This entry provides a listing of the highest-valued exported products; it sometimes includes the percent of total dollar value.

This entry provides the total US dollar amount of merchandise imports on a c. This entry provides a listing of the highest-valued imported products; it sometimes includes the percent of total dollar value.

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: This entry gives the total public and private debt owed to nonresidents repayable in internationally accepted currencies, goods, or services.

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home: This entry gives the cumulative US dollar value of all investments in the home country made directly by residents - primarily companies - of other countries as of the end of the time period indicated.

Direct investment excludes investment through purchase of shares. Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad: This entry gives the cumulative US dollar value of all investments in foreign countries made directly by residents - primarily companies - of the home country, as of the end of the time period indicated.

The International Organization for Standardization ISO alphabetic currency code for the national medium of exchange is presented in parenthesis.

Closing daily exchange rates are not presented in The World Factbook, but are used to convert stock values - e. This entry provides information on access to electricity.

Electrification data — collected from industry reports, national surveys, and international sources — consists of four subfields.

Population without electricity provides an estimate of the number of citizens that do not have access to electricity.

This entry is the annual electricity generated expressed in kilowatt-hours. This entry consists of total electricity generated annually plus imports and minus exports, expressed in kilowatt-hours.

This entry is the total exported electricity in kilowatt-hours. This entry is the total imported electricity in kilowatt-hours. Electricity - installed generating capacity: This entry is the total capacity of currently installed generators, expressed in kilowatts kW , to produce electricity.

A kilowatt kW generator will produce 10 kilowatt hours kWh of electricity, if it runs continuously for one hour. Electricity - from fossil fuels: Electricity - from nuclear fuels: Electricity - from hydroelectric plants: Electricity - from other renewable sources: Crude oil - production: Crude oil - exports: Crude oil - imports: Crude oil - proved reserves: This entry is the stock of proved reserves of crude oil, in barrels bbl.

Proved reserves are those quantities of petroleum which, by analysis of geological and engineering data, can be estimated with a high degree of confidence to be commercially recoverable from a given date forward, from known reservoirs and under current economic conditions.

Refined petroleum products - production: Refined petroleum products - consumption: Refined petroleum products - exports: Refined petroleum products - imports: Natural gas - production: This entry is the total natural gas produced in cubic meters cu m.

Natural gas - consumption: This entry is the total natural gas consumed in cubic meters cu m. Natural gas - exports: This entry is the total natural gas exported in cubic meters cu m.

Natural gas - imports: This entry is the total natural gas imported in cubic meters cu m. Natural gas - proved reserves: This entry is the stock of proved reserves of natural gas in cubic meters cu m.

Proved reserves are those quantities of natural gas, which, by analysis of geological and engineering data, can be estimated with a high degree of confidence to be commercially recoverable from a given date forward, from known reservoirs and under current economic conditions.

Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy: This entry is the total amount of carbon dioxide, measured in metric tons, released by burning fossil fuels in the process of producing and consuming energy.

Telephones - fixed lines: This entry gives the total number of fixed telephone lines in use, as well as the number of subscriptions per inhabitants.

Telephones - mobile cellular: This entry gives the total number of mobile cellular telephone subscribers, as well as the number of subscriptions per inhabitants.

Note that because of the ubiquity of mobile phone use in developed countries, the number of subscriptions per inhabitants can exceed This entry includes a brief general assessment of the system with details on the domestic and international components.

Cellular telephone system - the telephones in this system are radio transceivers, with each instrument having its o. This entry provides information on the approximate number of public and private TV and radio stations in a country, as well as basic information on the availability of satellite and cable TV services.

This entry gives the total number of individuals within a country who can access the Internet at home, via any device type computer or mobile and connection.

The percent of population with Internet access i. Statistics vary from country to country and may include users who access the Internet at least several times a week to those who access it only once within a period of several months.

Broadband - fixed subscriptions: This entry gives the total number of fixed-broadband subscriptions, as well as the number of subscriptions per inhabitants.

Fixed broadband is a physical wired connection to the Internet e. National air transport system: This entry includes four subfields describing the air transport system of a given country in terms of both structure and performance.

The second subfield, inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers, lists the total number. Civil aircraft registration country code prefix: This entry provides the one- or two-character alphanumeric code indicating the nationality of civil aircraft.

Article 20 of the Convention on International Civil Aviation Chicago Convention , signed in , requires that all aircraft engaged in international air navigation bear appropriate nationality marks.

The aircraft registration number consists of two parts: This entry gives the total number of airports or airfields recognizable from the air.

The runway s may be paved concrete or asphalt surfaces or unpaved grass, earth, sand, or gravel surfaces and may include closed or abandoned installations.

Airports or airfields that are no longer recognizable overgrown, no facilities, etc. Note that not all airports have accommodations for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control.

Airports - with paved runways: This entry gives the total number of airports with paved runways concrete or asphalt surfaces by length. For airports with more than one runway, only the longest runway is included according to the following five groups - 1 over 3, m over 10, ft , 2 2, to 3, m 8, to 10, ft , 3 1, to 2, m 5, to 8, ft , 4 to 1, m 3, to 5, ft , and 5 under m under 3, ft.

Only airports with usable runways are included in this listing. Airports - with unpaved runways: This entry gives the total number of airports with unpaved runways grass, dirt, sand, or gravel surfaces by length.

Only airports with usable runways are included in this listin. This entry gives the total number of heliports with hard-surface runways, helipads, or landing areas that support routine sustained helicopter operations exclusively and have support facilities including one or more of the following facilities: It includes former airports used exclusively for helicopter operations but excludes heliports limited to day operations and natural clearings that could support helicopter landings and takeoffs.

This entry gives the lengths and types of pipelines for transporting products like natural gas, crude oil, or petroleum products. This entry states the total route length of the railway network and of its component parts by gauge, which is the measure of the distance between the inner sides of the load-bearing rails.

The four typical types of gauges are: Other gauges are listed under note. Gauges vary by country and sometimes within countries. The choice of gauge during initial construction was mainly in resp.

This entry gives the total length of the road network and includes the length of the paved and unpaved portions. This entry gives the total length of navigable rivers, canals, and other inland bodies of water.

Merchant marine may be defined as all ships engaged in the carriage of goods; or all commercial vessels as opposed to all nonmilitary ships , which excludes tugs, fishing vessels, offshore oil rigs, etc.

This entry contains information in four fields - total, ships by type, foreign-owned, and registered in other countries.

DWT or dead weight tonnage is the total weight of ca. This entry lists major ports and terminals primarily on the basis of the amount of cargo tonnage shipped through the facilities on an annual basis.

In some instances, the number of containers handled or ship visits were also considered. Le Havre 2,, LNG terminal s import: Calais, Cherbourg, Le Havre.

France has been a centre of Western cultural development for centuries. Many French artists have been among the most renowned of their time, and France is still recognised in the world for its rich cultural tradition.

The successive political regimes have always promoted artistic creation, and the creation of the Ministry of Culture in helped preserve the cultural heritage of the country and make it available to the public.

The Ministry of Culture has been very active since its creation, granting subsidies to artists, promoting French culture in the world, supporting festivals and cultural events, protecting historical monuments.

The French government also succeeded in maintaining a cultural exception to defend audiovisual products made in the country.

France receives the highest number of tourists per year, largely thanks to the numerous cultural establishments and historical buildings implanted all over the territory.

The 43, buildings protected as historical monuments include mainly residences many castles and religious buildings cathedrals , basilicas , churches , but also statutes, memorials and gardens.

The origins of French art were very much influenced by Flemish art and by Italian art at the time of the Renaissance.

Jean Fouquet , the most famous medieval French painter, is said to have been the first to travel to Italy and experience the Early Renaissance at first hand.

The Renaissance painting School of Fontainebleau was directly inspired by Italian painters such as Primaticcio and Rosso Fiorentino , who both worked in France.

The 17th century was the period when French painting became prominent and individualised itself through classicism. Many museums in France are entirely or partly devoted to sculptures and painting works.

During the Middle Ages, many fortified castles were built by feudal nobles to mark their powers. During this era, France had been using Romanesque architecture like most of Western Europe.

Some of the greatest examples of Romanesque churches in France are the Saint Sernin Basilica in Toulouse , the largest romanesque church in Europe, [] and the remains of the Cluniac Abbey.

The kings were crowned in another important Gothic church: Following the renaissance and the end of the Middle Ages, Baroque architecture replaced the traditional Gothic style.

However, in France, baroque architecture found a greater success in the secular domain than in a religious one. Jules Hardouin Mansart , who designed the extensions to Versailles, was one of the most influential French architect of the baroque era; he is famous for his dome at Les Invalides.

On the military architectural side, Vauban designed some of the most efficient fortresses in Europe and became an influential military architect; as a result, imitations of his works can be found all over Europe, the Americas, Russia and Turkey.

After the Revolution, the Republicans favoured Neoclassicism although neoclassicism was introduced in France prior to the revolution with such building as the Parisian Pantheon or the Capitole de Toulouse.

Under Napoleon III , a new wave of urbanism and architecture was given birth; extravagant buildings such as the neo-baroque Palais Garnier were built.

The architecture associated to this era is named Second Empire in English, the term being taken from the Second French Empire.

In the late 19th century, Gustave Eiffel designed many bridges, such as Garabit viaduct , and remains one of the most influential bridge designers of his time, although he is best remembered for the iconic Eiffel Tower.

More recently, French architects have combined both modern and old architectural styles. The Louvre Pyramid is an example of modern architecture added to an older building.

The most difficult buildings to integrate within French cities are skyscrapers, as they are visible from afar.

For instance, in Paris, since , new buildings had to be under 37 meters feet. The earliest French literature dates from the Middle Ages , when what is now known as modern France did not have a single, uniform language.

There were several languages and dialects and writers used their own spelling and grammar. Much medieval French poetry and literature were inspired by the legends of the Matter of France , such as The Song of Roland and the various chansons de geste.

Michel de Montaigne was the other major figure of the French literature during that century. His most famous work, Essais , created the literary genre of the essay.

Generations of French pupils had to learn his fables, that were seen as helping teaching wisdom and common sense to the young people. French literature and poetry flourished even more in the 18th and 19th centuries.

The 19th century saw the writings of many renowned French authors. Victor Hugo is sometimes seen as "the greatest French writer of all times" [] for excelling in all literary genres.

The preface of his play Cromwell is considered to be the manifesto of the Romantic movement. The Prix Goncourt is a French literary prize first awarded in Medieval philosophy was dominated by Scholasticism until the emergence of Humanism in the Renaissance.

Descartes revitalised Western philosophy , which had been declined after the Greek and Roman eras. French philosophers produced some of the most important political works of the Age of Enlightenment.

In The Spirit of the Laws , Baron de Montesquieu theorised the principle of separation of powers , which has been implemented in all liberal democracies since it was first applied in the United States.

Voltaire came to embody the Enlightenment with his defence of civil liberties, such as the right to a free trial and freedom of religion. France has a long and varied musical history.

It experienced a golden age in the 17th century thanks to Louis XIV, who employed a number of talented musicians and composers in the royal court.

After the death of the "Roi Soleil", French musical creation lost dynamism, but in the next century the music of Jean-Philippe Rameau reached some prestige, and today he is still one of the most renowned French composers.

Rameau became the dominant composer of French opera and the leading French composer for the harpsichord. French composers played an important role during the music of the 19th and early 20th century, which is considered to be the Romantic music era.

Romantic music emphasised a surrender to nature, a fascination with the past and the supernatural, the exploration of unusual, strange and surprising sounds, and a focus on national identity.

This period was also a golden age for operas. French composers from the Romantic era included: Later came precursors of modern classical music.

Maurice Ravel and Claude Debussy are the most prominent figures associated with Impressionist music. Debussy was among the most influential composers of the late 19th and early 20th centuries, and his use of non-traditional scales and chromaticism influenced many composers who followed.

The two composers invented new musical forms [] [] [] [] and new sounds. More recently, the middle of the 20th century, Maurice Ohana , Pierre Schaeffer and Pierre Boulez contributed to the evolutions of contemporary classical music.

French music then followed the rapid emergence of pop and rock music at the middle of the 20th century. In the s and s decade , electronic duos Daft Punk , Justice and Air also reached worldwide popularity and contributed to the reputation of modern electronic music in the world.

Among current musical events and institutions in France, many are dedicated to classical music and operas.

It is noted for having a strong film industry, due in part to protections afforded by the French government. France remains a leader in filmmaking, as of [update] producing more films than any other European country.

Apart from its strong and innovative film tradition, France has also been a gathering spot for artists from across Europe and the world.

For this reason, French cinema is sometimes intertwined with the cinema of foreign nations. Conversely, French directors have had prolific and influential careers in other countries, such as Luc Besson , Jacques Tourneur , or Francis Veber in the United States.

Until recently, France had for centuries been the cultural center of the world, [] although its dominant position has been surpassed by the United States.

Subsequently, France takes steps in protecting and promoting its culture, becoming a leading advocate of the cultural exception. S and Israel, voted against it.

Fashion has been an important industry and cultural export of France since the 17th century, and modern "haute couture" originated in Paris in the s.

The expression Haute couture is, in France, a legally protected name, guaranteeing certain quality standards.

The association of France with fashion and style French: But France renewed its dominance of the high fashion French: The French perfume industry is world leader in its sector and is centered on the town of Grasse.

The s saw a conglomeration of many French couture houses under luxury giants and multinationals such as LVMH. Like in most industrialised nations, the print media have been affected by a severe crisis in the past decade.

In , the government launched a major initiative to help the sector reform and become financially independent, [] [] but in it had to give , euros to help the print media cope with the economic crisis , in addition to existing subsidies.

In , after years of centralised monopoly on radio and television, the governmental agency ORTF was split into several national institutions, but the three already-existing TV channels and four national radio stations [] [] remained under state-control.

It was only in that the government allowed free broadcasting in the territory, ending state monopoly on radio.

In , the government created global news channel France According to a poll in , the French were found to have the highest level of religious tolerance and to be the country where the highest proportion of the population defines its identity primarily in term of nationality and not religion.

In addition, Bastille Day , the national holiday, commemorates the storming of the Bastille on 14 July A common and traditional symbol of the French people is the Gallic rooster.

Its origins date back to Antiquity, since the Latin word Gallus meant both " rooster " and "inhabitant of Gaul". Then this figure gradually became the most widely shared representation of the French, used by French monarchs, then by the Revolution and under the successive republican regimes as representation of the national identity, used for some stamps and coins.

French cuisine is renowned for being one of the finest in the world. There are more than different varieties.

The plat principal could include a pot au feu or steak frites. French cuisine is also regarded as a key element of the quality of life and the attractiveness of France.

By , the Michelin Guide had awarded stars to French restaurants, at that time more than any other country, although the guide also inspects more restaurants in France than in any other country by , Japan was awarded as many Michelin stars as France, despite having half the number of Michelin inspectors working there.

In addition to its wine tradition, France is also a major producer of beer and rum. Since , France hosts the annual Tour de France , the most famous road bicycle race in the world.

French martial arts include Savate and Fencing. Football is the most popular sport in France, with over 1,, registered players, and over 18, registered clubs.

The top national football club competition is Ligue 1. It is the premier clay court tennis championship event in the world and the second of four annual Grand Slam tournaments.

Rugby union is popular, particularly in Paris and the southwest of France. Stemming from a strong domestic league , the French rugby team has won 16 Six Nations Championships, including 8 grand slams ; and has reached the semi-final of the Rugby World Cup 6 times, going on to the final 3 times.

Rugby league in France is mostly played and followed in the South of France, in cities such as Perpignan and Toulouse.

The Elite One Championship is the professional competition for rugby league clubs in France. In recent decades, France has produced world-elite basketball players, most notably Tony Parker.

The national team has won two Olympic Silver Medals: From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Republic with mainland in Europe and numerous oversea territories.

Great Seal of France. Show map of Europe. Source gives area of metropolitan France as , km2 , sq mi and lists overseas regions separately, whose areas sum to 89, km 2 34, sq mi.

Adding these give the total shown here for the entire French Republic. The CIA reports the total as , km2 , sq mi.

Gaul , Celts , and Roman Gaul. Francia , Merovingian dynasty , and Carolingian dynasty. List of French monarchs and France in the Middle Ages. Kingdom of France , Capetian dynasty , Valois dynasty , and Bourbon dynasty.

France in the 19th century and France in the 20th century. France in the twentieth century. Administrative divisions of France.

Centre- Val de Loire. Pays de la Loire. Foreign relations of France. Bastille Day in Paris. List of French inventions and discoveries. Demographics of France and French people.

Largest cities or towns in France census. Urban area France and Urban unit. French language , Languages of France , and Organisation internationale de la Francophonie.

France portal French language and French-speaking world portal. The overseas territories are not part of the French telephone numbering plan; their country calling codes are: All five are considered integral parts of the French Republic.

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