Yellow: Race in America Beyond Black and White | Frank Wu | ISBN: | Kostenloser Versand für alle Bücher mit Versand und Verkauf duch. Asiatische Amerikaner (engl.: Asian Americans) sind Einwohner der USA, welche entweder in Pine Science Press, ISBN · Frank H. Wu Yellow: Race in American Beyond Black and White New York: Basic Books, . 5. Sept. Am vergangenen Wochenende startete das Team SPONSOR 24 - Yellow-Race rund um Ron Schumann und Nanett Centner mit dem.
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Huang yellow is a common surname, but does not refer to the Asian race as was popular in western languages until recently.
However, the Yellow Emperor was a legendary founder of China. Yellow is also identified with the "center" cardinal direction blue-east, red-south, white-west, black-north while China is known as Zhongguo "middle kingdom".
Minnan ang mo , "red-haired". Contemporary Chinese , has, however, adopted Western usage to some extent. Names of ethnic minorities sometimes contain colors, not to indicate skin color, but simply for identification, possibly based on traditional clothing or geographical direction.
The Five Races Under One Union theory of national unity can be visualized through an old ROC flag and a variant which emphasized Han administration while de-emphasizing the top-to-bottom hierarchy found in the original flag.
The five cardinal directions were historically identified with colors. This was common to the Central Asian cultural area and was carried west by the westward migration of the Turks.
These directional color terms were applied both to geographic features and sometimes to populations as well. Racial segregation in the United States prior to the s was binary, white vs.
At college campus protests during the s, a "Flag of the Races" was in use, with five stripes comprising red, black, brown, yellow, and white tones.
In the United States Census , two of the five self-designated races are labeled by a color. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Racism in the United States. Scientific racism and Physical anthropology. Black people and White people. In this respect the ancients were not unlike whites of later generations who used color terms as a kind of shorthand to denote Africans and those of African descent.
Snowden, Before Color Prejudice: Officina Hackiana, Leiden , p. Ita Iudaei in Glossea Misnae tractatu Sanhedrin. See also Charles Frankel, La science face au racisme , 41f.
Handbuch der Naturgeschichte vol. Kowner and Skott in: Interactions, Nationalism, Gender and Lineage , p. Die Ordnung der Kulturen: Archived from the original PDF on Archived copy as title link ; Keevak, Michael.
A Short History of Racial Thinking. Princeton University Press, The German Invention of Race. The Rise and Fall of the Caucasian Race: A Political History of Racial Identity.
The Culture of Microdiversity p. Retrieved from " https: Color in culture Race human categorization Skin pigmentation Scientific racism.
Archived copy as title Webarchive template wayback links Wikipedia articles needing clarification from March Articles containing Hebrew-language text All articles lacking reliable references Articles lacking reliable references from March Views Read Edit View history.
Race biology Race categorization. Race and genetics Human genetic variation. The eccentricity of hair cross-sectional shape index is also calculated using the thickest and thinnest axial diameters of human hair, and this index also differs by race.
The hair eccentricity indexes of Africans, Europeans and Mongoloids are: This means that Africans with the highest hair eccentricity index value of 1.
Hudson said that, later, during the Yayoi period , the Neo-Mongoloid type entered Japan. Hudson said that genetically Japanese people are primarily Neo-Mongoloid with Proto-Mongoloid admixture.
Schurr of the Department of Anthropology at the University of Pennsylvania said that Mongoloid traits emerged from Transbaikalia , central and eastern regions of Mongolia, and several regions of Northern China.
Schurr said that studies of cranio-facial variation in Mongolia suggest that the region of modern-day Mongolians is the origin of the Mongoloid racial type".
Lahr said that one hypothesis is that Mongoloids originated in north Asia due to the regional continuity in this region and this population conforming best to the standard Mongoloid features.
Lahr said that the other hypothesis is that Mongoloids originate from Southeast Asian populations that expanded from Africa to Southeast Asia during the first half of the Upper Pleistocene and then traveled to Australia-Melanesia and East Asia.
Lahr said that the morphology of the Paleoindian is consistent with the proto-Mongoloid definition. In , Ashley Montagu claimed "the skeleton of the classic Mongoloid type is very delicately made, even down to the character of the sutures of the skull which, like those of the infant skull, are relatively smooth and untortuous.
In fact the Mongoloid presents so many physical traits which are associated with the late fetus or young infant that he has been called a fetalized, infantilized or pedomorphic type.
Those who have carefully observed young babies may recall that the root of the nose is frequently flat or low as in Mongoloids, and that an internal epicanthic fold in such instances is usually present.
The smaller number of individual head hairs and the marked hairlessness of the remainder of the body are infantile traits, as are likewise the small mastoid processes , the shallow fossa into which the jawbone fits the mandibular fossa , the rather stocky build, the large brain-pan and brain, lack of brow ridges , and quite a number of other characters.
Neoteny in hominids is still one of the simplest explanations of how we developed a disproportionately large brain so rapidly over the past few million years.
The relatively large brain and the forward rotation of the skull on the spinal column, and body hair loss, both characteristic of humans, are found in foetal chimps.
Gould suggested a mild intensification of neoteny in Mongoloids, in whom it has been given the name pedomorphy. Such a mechanism is likely to involve only a few controller genes and could therefore happen over a relatively short evolutionary period.
It would also explain how the counterintuitive retrousse [turned up at the end] nose and relative loss of facial hair got into the package".
Paul Storm of the Naturalis Biodiversity Center , Netherlands , said that in Australasia there are two types of cranial morphologies—the " Sunda " Mongoloid and " Sahul " Australoid types.
Storm said that the "Sunda" Mongoloid type includes Chinese and Javanese people, and he said that the "Sahul" Australoid type includes Papuans and Australian aborigines.
Storm said that the "Sunda" Mongoloid type has a flat face with high cheek bones, and Storm said that this "flat face" of the Chinese and Javanese is known as the "mongoloid face".
Storm further said that the "Sunda" Mongoloid type has a more rounded skull, "feminine juvenile characters", a "retention of juvenile characters" and a limited outgrowth of superstructures such as the supraorbital region.
Storm said that "Sunda" Mongoloid skulls resemble female skulls more than "Sahul" Australoid skulls resemble female skulls. Storm said that the skulls of "Asian" males "Chinese and Javanese" have "more feminine characteristics", and he said that they have "many feminine characters in contrast with Australians".
Paul Storm said that Asia contained humans with "generalized" cranial morphology, but between 20, BP and 12, BP this generalized type disappeared as a new type emerged.
This new type had a flatter face with more pronounced cheekbones, a more rounded head, reduced sexual dimorphism male skulls started to resemble female skulls , a reduction of superstructures such as the supraorbital region and an increased "retention of juvenile characters".
Storm said that this new type of skull that emerged is called the "Proto-Sunda" Proto-Mongoloid type, and it is distinguished from the "Sunda" Mongoloid type by being more " robust ".
Storm said that the "Mongoloid" or "Asian" type of skull developed relatively fast during a population bottleneck in Asia that happened during the Late Pleistocene or Early Holocene through a microevolutionary trend that involved a "continuation of neoteny and gracilisation trends".
Due to different courses of evolution, Storm said that these two types of skulls, the "Sunda" Mongoloid type and the "Sahul" Australoid type, are now clearly recognizable at the present time.
Andrew Arthur Abbie who was an anatomist and anthropologist at the University of Adelaide  talked about leg-to-torso length being related to neoteny.
Abbie said that women normally have shorter legs than men, and he said that shorter legs are the normal condition in some ethnic groups such as Mongoloids.
Abbie said that Mongoloids of whom he listed the people of "China, Japan and the Americas" have proportionately larger heads and shorter legs than Europeans, and he said that this is a case of "paedomorphism".
Abbie said that aboriginal Australians and some African ethnic groups such as the " Negro ", the " Hottentot " and the " Nubian " peoples have proportionately longer legs than Europeans, and he said that this is a case of "gerontomorphism".
Abbie said that ethnic groups with proportionately shorter legs than Europeans are relatively "paedomorphic" in terms of leg-to-torso ratios when compared to Europeans, and he said that ethnic groups with proportionately longer legs than Europeans are relatively "gerontomorphic" in terms of leg-to-torso ratios when compared to Europeans.
Akazawa Takeru, an anthropology professor at the International Research Center for Japanese Studies in Kyoto , wrote that Mongoloid features are an adaptation to the cold of the Mammoth steppe.
Nicholas Wade said that biologists have speculated that the Mongoloid skull type was the result of natural selection in response to a cold climate, and Wade said that the Mongoloid skull type first started to indisputably appear in the archaeological record 10, years ago.
Wade said that biologists have speculated that the fat in the eyelids of Mongoloids and the stocky builds of Mongoloids were selected for as adaptations to the cold.
Writing in , anthropology professor Joseph K. So at Trent University in Ontario cited a study by J. Steegman showing that the so-called cold-adapted Mongoloid face provided no greater protection against frostbite than the facial structure of European subjects.
Hylander where Hylander said that in the Eskimo Inuit , for example, the reduction of the brow ridge and flatness of the face are instead due to internal structural configurations that are cold-adapted in the sense that they produce a large vertical bite force necessary to chew frozen seal meat.
Coon also has a hypothesis for why noses on Mongoloids are very distinct. Typically, the nose is not very prominent on the face of a Mongoloid.
Their frontal sinus is also reduced in order to allow more room for padding to protect from their cold environment. Regardless of the environment that the Mongoloid is in, their nose helps reduce the stress of the environment on their body by moistening the air inspired to cool the body off instead of doing a straight up heat exchange.
The Asian mt-DNA Haplogroup D has been shown in a small Japanese study  to provide greater heat production upon exposure to cold than other haplogroups prevalent in the area.
The skin of Asians turns darker and yellower with age relative to the skin of Caucasians. Willett Enos Rotzell, professor of Botany and Zoology at the Hahnemann Medical College , said the Asian race has skin color ranging from a yellowish tint to an olive shade , with black and coarse hair with a circular cross section, an absent or scanty beard, a brachycephalic skull , prominent cheek bones and a broad face.
Rotzell said that the Asian race has its original home in Asia. The EDAR gene causes the Sinodont tooth pattern, and also affects hair texture,  jaw morphology,  and perhaps the nutritional profile of breast milk.
Dirkmaat, professor of paleoanthropology and archaeology at Mercyhurst University ,  said that Southeast Asian skulls can be distinguished from Asian and Native American skulls in that they are "smaller and less robust" with noses exhibiting a medium width without nasal overgrowth, and can "exhibit gracile features common to female skulls".
She qualified her statement about Hispanics by adding that their lack of prognathism would not hold true for Hispanic populations with "African admixture".
Qing He et al. Deedrick, Unit Chief of the Trace Evidence Unit for the Federal Bureau of Investigation , said that hairs of "Mongoloid or Asian origin" are characterized as being straight and coarse with a circular cross section and a wider diameter than those of other "racial groups".
He said that the cuticle is thicker than those of Negroid or Caucasian hairs while the medulla is "continuous and wide". He said that the pigment granules are smaller than the larger pigment granules of Negroid hair, and the pigment granules in the cortex are "generally larger" than those of Caucasian hair.
Unlike the "evenly distributed" pigment granules of Caucasian hair, Asian hair frequently has clusters of pigment granules that form "patchy areas".
The average size of random melanosomes of "Asian skin" for Chinese individuals of Fitzpatrick phototype IV through V was measured to be 1.
The ratio of clustered to distributed melanosomes was George Richard Scott, physical anthropologist at the University of Nevada , said that some East Asians in particular, Koreans, Han Chinese and some Japanese , as well as Native Americans , have a distinctive dental pattern known as Sinodonty , where, among other features, the upper first two incisors are not aligned with the other teeth, but are rotated a few degrees inward and are shovel-shaped.
Both darker-skinned and lighter-skinned Asians have a thicker dermis than Caucasians of comparable skin pigment which may be the reason for a "substantially lower incidence of fine wrinkles" in Asians when compared to Caucasians, and this lower incidence of fine wrinkles may be the reason for the "myth" that Asian faces age slower than Caucasian faces.
Turkic people display a great variety of ethnic types. Mongoloid and Caucasoid facial structure is common among many Turkic groups, such as Chuvash people , Tatars , Kazakhs , Uzbeks , Bashkirs , also such Mongoloid and Caucasoid features are present in some Russians in different proportions, less or more.
Historically, the racial classification of the Turkic peoples was sometimes given as " Turanid ". Turanid racial type or "minor race", situated at the boundary of the distribution of the Mongoloid and Europid "great races".
The Turkic people live in central, eastern, northern, and western Asia as well as parts of eastern Europe. A Mongolian spot, also known as Mongolian blue spot, congenital dermal melanocytosis,  and dermal melanocytosis  is a benign , flat, congenital birthmark with wavy borders and irregular shape.
Genetic research into the separation time between the major racial groups was presented as early as by Masatoshi Nei. Nei found a separation time between Negroid and Eurasian Caucasoid and Mongoloid taken together of roughly , years, and a separation time between the Caucasoid and Mongoloid groups of roughly 40, years.
The Ainu were found to represent a more basal branch than the modern farming populations of East Asia, suggesting an ancient pre-Neolithic connection with northeast Siberians.
Numerous studies performed during — have suggested that Eurasian populations can be derived from an early division of the non-African lineage into an eastern and a western clade before around 40, years ago.
East Asian genetics shows a number of concentrated alleles suggestive of selection pressures since their separation from Caucasoids.
A study found Neanderthal introgression of 18 genes—several of which are related to UV-light adaptation—within the chromosome 3p The introgressive haplotypes were positively selected in only East Asian populations, rising steadily from 45, years ago until a sudden increase of growth rate around 5, to 3, years ago.
They occur at very high frequencies among East Asian populations in contrast to other Eurasian populations e. European and South Asian populations.
The findings also suggests that this Neanderthal introgression occurred within the ancestral population shared by East Asians and Native Americans.
A study of the ancient DNA of Tianyuan Man found that the individual is closely related to modern East Asian popularions, but not a direct ancestor.
In a study led by Luigi Luca Cavalli-Sforza ,  42 Asian populations were divided into three groupings, 1. Asian Caucasoids , 2. Northeast and East Asian , 3.
Southeast Asian , with substantial Caucasoid-Mongoloid hybridization along an approximate boundary running from the Urals to the eastern part of India.
Other studies also show that S. Chinese, Vietnamese and Tai peoples were found intermediate between the N. Chinese or other Northeast Asians and Southeast Asian.
A study conducted by the HUGO Pan-Asian SNP Consortium in used principal components analysis , which makes no prior population assumptions, on genetic data sampled from a large number of points across Asia.
They said that East Asian and South-East Asian populations clustered together, and suggested a common origin for these populations. At the same time they observed a broad discontinuity between this cluster and South Asia, commenting most of the Indian populations showed evidence of shared ancestry with European populations.
The study said that genetic ancestry is strongly correlated with linguistic affiliations as well as geography. Since modern-day "Asians" do not show the amount of mtDNA divergence expected had they mixed with Homo erectus , Cann believes the expanding Homo sapiens from Africa replaced the Asian Homo erectus.
Wallace of the Department of Biochemistry at Emory University said that the mtDNA of the indigenous peoples of the Americas is "clearly Asian in character", but the few founding females carried "rare Asian mtDNAs ", causing a different frequency of mtDNA and a "dramatic founder effect ".
Heard from the Department of Anthropology, University of Texas at Austin has argued "Mongoloid" should be discontinued from forensic literature because Southeast Asians and Northeast Asians differ significantly in their frequency of combined non-metric cranial traits; Southeast Asians and Northeast Asians therefore should not be considered "Mongoloid", but separate ancestry categories.
The terminology of "Caucasoid", "Mongoloid", "Negroid" have also been criticized more generally as harking back to anthropological classifications unduly based on typology alone.
The term was motivated by the observation that people with Down syndrome often have epicanthic folds.
In , its use was deprecated by a group of genetic experts in an article in The Lancet due to its "misleading connotations".
By the end of the 20th-century, the pejorative connotations of the obsolete term for Down syndrome had in turn rubbed off on the term for the racial category.
Thus, Chong Yah Lim in expressed his dislike for the term "Mongoloid" for the broad racial category due to its connotations of "demented physical and mental developments", suggesting the term "East Asian race" as a more "appropriately neutral, modern term".
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Yellow race. For other uses, see Mongoloid disambiguation. Melanochroi including Hamites and Moors.
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